語言學(三)Phonetics and Language in Society


Phonetics: The Sounds of language/語音學:語言的聲音
重點導覽:1.甚麼是Phonetics2.語音學有幾種。 3.母音和子音。
Sound Segments/
音段
Phonetics: The sounds of language, relating to spoken.
 The study of speech sounds.
語音學:語言的聲音,有關於口語。研究講話的聲音。
To describe speech sounds, it is necessary to know what an individual sound is, and how each sound differs from all others.
來形容講話的聲音,有必要知道什麼是個別的聲音,以及每個聲音不同於所有其他的。
This is not as easy as it may seem for when we speak, the sounds seem to run together and it isn't at all obvious where one sound ends and the next begins.
當我們說時它看起來可能不是容易,聲音似乎念在了一起,一個聲音的結束和一個聲音的開始不是所有的發音都顯而易見的。
However, when we know the language we hear the individual sounds in our “mind’s ear” and are able to make sense of them, unlike the sign painter in the cartoon.
然而,當我們知道的語言,我們聽到個別的聲音在我們的心靈的耳朵,並且能夠製作他們的情感,不像在卡通的視覺畫家。
A speaker of English knows that there are three sounds in the word bus.
使用英語的說話者都知道,bus這個字有三種聲音。
Yet, physically the word is just one continuous sound.
然而,實際上這個詞僅僅是一個連續的聲音    
You can segment that one sound into parts because you know English.
因為你知道英語,你可以區隔,一個聲音分成幾部分。
And you recognize those parts when they occur elsewhere as b does in bet or rob, as u does in up, and as s does in sister.
而你辨識出這些部分,當它們發生在其他地方如bbetrob, uupssister

Identity of Speech Sounds/講話聲音的識別
The science of phonetics attempts to describe all of the sounds used in all languages of the world.
語音學的科學嘗試描述所有在世界上的所有語言中使用的聲音
1.Acoustic phonetics focuses on the physical properties of sounds .
聲學語音學重點是發音的特色屬性。
2.Auditory phonetics is concerned with how listeners perceive these sounds.
聽覺語音學關注的是聽到者的角度。
3. articulatory phonetics-the primary concern of this chapter-is the study of how the vocal tract produces the sound of language.
發音語音學是主要關注在聲道如何產生聲音的研究。
The phonetic Alphabet/語音字母
Orthography: A general term for “spelling” in any language does not necessarily represent the sounds of a language in a consistent way.
拼字法:一般指在任何語言“拼音”並不一定代表一種語言的聲音是一致的方式。
To be scientific and phonetics is a science-we must devise a way for the same sound every time.
科學和語音是一門科學,我們必須設計一個每次相同的聲音的方式。
To see that ordinary spelling with our Roman alphabet is woefully inadequate for the task, consider sentences such as:
看我們一般拼音用的羅馬字母是嚴重不足以應付我們的拼音,想想這個句子。
Did he believe that Caesar could see the people seize the seas?
The silly amoeba stole the key to the machine.
       
The same is represented variously by e,ie,ae,ee,eo,ei,ea,y,oe,ey, and i.
各種相同的代表是e,ie,ae,ee,eo,ei,ea,y,oe,ey, and i.
        My father wanted many a village dame badly.
English no consistent英文是非一致性的語言 

Or, conversely, the single letter x, when not pronounced as z, usually stands
for the two sounds ks as in sex
或者相反,字母x,當不發音為Z時,通常為ks這兩個聲音在sex這個字中。

Some letters have no sound in certain words (so-called silent letters):
有些字母在某些詞(所謂的沉默字母)無聲音:
Mnemonic  autumn  asthma  corps  honest  chthonic  hole  Christmas
psychology  sword  debt  gnaw  bough  phthalate  island  knot

International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA/國際音標,或IPA
knew that a phonetic alphabet should include just enough symbols to represent
the fundamental sounds of all languages.
知道拼音一個字母發音應該包括足夠的符號來表示
所有語言的基本聲音。

The symbol [ə] in sofa is called a schwa.
非重音節在的母音
沙發詞彙的音標中符號[ə],被稱為schwa
We use it to represent vowels in syllables that are not emphasized in
speaking and whose duration is very short,
我們用它來表示音節中的母音,此用時不強調於發音,而且持續的時間很短
像是 general, about, reader
All other vowel symbols in the chart occur in syllables that receive at least
some emphasis.
所有其他的母音於音節發音中,會產生重音。
※非重音節所在的母音(滑音輕輕滑過)
Vowels in syllables that are not emphasized in speaking

Articulatory Phonetics 發音語音學
The production of any sound involves the movement of air.
任何聲音的產生涉及空氣的運動。
Most speech sounds are produced by pushing lung air through the vocal cords, up the throat, into the mouth or nose and finally out of the body.
大部分講話的聲音產生為推動肺部空氣後穿過聲帶,再往上至喉嚨,進入嘴巴或鼻子,最後排出體外。

聲帶的開口是聲門(glottis)位於voice box or larynx.

喉部(larynx)上方的喉嚨的管狀部分是咽(pharynx)。
Mouth= 區分是oral cavity或nasal cavity

Consonants
-------------------------------------------------------------
Place of Articulation-發音位置
We classify consonants according to where in the vocal tract the airflow restriction
occurs, called the place of articulation.
我們分類子音根據聲道的氣流限制的產生,稱為發音位置。
Movement of the tongue and lips
creates the constriction, reshaping the oral cavity in various ways to produce
the various sounds. 
舌頭和嘴唇的運動產生各種了收縮、重塑口腔的方式來產生各種聲音。
We are about to discuss the major places of articulation.
我們討論關於主要的發音位置

Bilabials [p] [b] [m]-雙唇音
Labiodentals [f] [v]-唇齒音:上排牙齒與下唇接觸
Interdentals [θ] [ð]-齒間音:這個聲音,為TH放在一起的發音,發音方式為舌尖伸出於兩唇間。
Alveolars [t] [d] [n] [s] [z] [l] [r]-齒槽音 7個聲音為舌頭以不同方式抬高至牙床(alveolar ridge)
Palatals [ʃ] [ӡ] [ʧ] [ʤ] [j]-上顎音
Velars [k] [g] [ŋ]-軟顎音
Uvulars [ʀ] [q] [ɢ]-英文沒有這個
Glottals [h] [Ɂ]-聲門音

Manner of Articulation-發音方法
Speech sounds also vary in the way the airstream is affected as it flows from the lungs up and out of the mouth and nose.
講話的聲音也各不相同,因為從肺部上來從嘴和鼻子流出的氣流而被影響。
It may be blocked or partially blocked; the vocal cords may vibrate or not vibrate.
它可能被堵塞或部分堵塞;聲帶可能振動或不振動。
Stop:p,b,m,t,d,n,k,g,ŋ,th,ʤ,Ɂ
特別注意:th 和ʤ 也是破擦音。
Stops are consonants in which the airstream is completely blocked in the
oral cavity for a short period.
停止音是子音,發音的氣流是完全被阻斷在口腔中。

Fricatives(摩擦音):f,v,θ, ð,s,z,ʃ,ӡ,h
All fricatives are continuants.

Affricates(破擦音):th,ʤ-有雙重特色;且破擦音為非連續音。

Liquids(流音):l,r

Glides(滑音):j,w
They are always followed directly by a vowel and do not occur at the ends of words.
半母音(幫助發音)It is thus a labio-velar glide.

 Voiced and Voiceless Sounds
This phonetic property distinguishes the words in pairs like the following:
語音屬性區分成對的詞如下:
rope /robe fate /fade rack  /rag    wreath/wreathe
[rop]/[rob] [fet]/[fed] [ræk]/[ræg]    [riθ]/[rið]

The first word of each pair ends with a voiceless sound and the second word with a voiced sound. 
All other aspects of the sounds in each word pair are identical; the position of the lips and tongue is the same.

The voiced/voiceless distinction also occurs in the following pairs, where in each case the first word begins with a voiceless sound and the second with a voiced sound:

fine/vine                    seal/zeal                  choke/joke 
[faɪn]/[vaɪn]              [sil/zil]                      [ʧok]/[ʤok]
peat/beat                 tote/dote                  kale/gale
[pit]/[bit]                  [tot]/[dot]               [kel]/[gel]

而這些詞也被稱為最小音對minimal pair
定義:Two different words that differ in one sound in the same position.

Nasal and Oral Sounds=m,n,ŋ

Phonetic Symbols for American English Consonants

We are now capable of distinguishing all of the consonant sounds of English via the properties of voicing, nasality, and place and manner of articulation.
我們現在能夠區分所有的英語子音的聲音經由有聲、鼻音和發音位置與方法屬性


Vowels

-------------------------------------------------------------
Different parts of the 
1.tongue may be high or low in the mouth/舌頭位置高中低
2.the lips may be spread or pursed; /嘴型圓不圓
3.the velum may be raised or lowered./軟顎被抬起或降低

Vowel sounds carry pitch and loudness; you can sing vowels or shout vowels.
母音的發音特色:有聲且帶有重音、音節,發音沒有阻礙。

We classify vowels according to three questions:
我們根據三個問題來分類母音--
1. How high or low in the mouth is the tongue?/舌頭位置高中低
2. How forward or backward in the mouth is the tongue?/舌頭位置前中後
3. Are the lips rounded (pursed) or spread?嘴型圓不圓

Tongue Position and  Lip Rounding

Diphthongs/雙母音
A diphthong is a sequence of two vowel sounds “squashed” together. 
雙母音是兩個母音排在一起,像是[aɪ],[aʊ]
The vowels are simple vowels, called monophthongs.

一個簡單的母音被稱為單母音。

Nasalization of Vowels/鼻母音
In English, nasal vowels occur for the most part before nasal consonants in the same syllable, and oral vowels occur in all other places.

在英語中,鼻母音大多發生在鼻子音之前,且在相同的音節,和一般母音出現在所有除了鼻母音以外的母音。
例如加在n,m,ŋ前的母音就會變鼻母音
Bean [bĩn]; Bone[bõn]

Tense and Lax Vowels/長和短母音

Major Phonetic Classes/主要的母音類別

一、Noncontinuants and Continuants/不連續和連續音
Stops and affricates belong to the class of noncontinuants.
Stops 和破擦音都屬於非連續音的類型
Nasal stops are included.
鼻音的STOP也包含在內。
All other consonants, and all vowels, are continuants.

而其他的子音和全部的母音都屬於連續音。
 noncontinuants---
Stops:p,b,m,t,d,n,k,g,ŋ,th,ʤ,Ɂ
affricates:th,ʤ

二、Obstruents and Sonorants/閉塞音和響音


The non-nasal stops, the fricatives, and the affricates form a major class of

sounds called obstruents

非鼻音的停止音、摩擦音,及破擦音 形成的類型為閉塞音。

obstruents:

1.non-nasal stops:p,b,t,d,k,g,th,ʤ,Ɂ

2.fricatives:f,v,θ, ð,s,z,ʃ,ӡ,h
3.affricates:th,ʤ

Vowels, nasal stops [m], [n],and [ŋ], liquids [l] and [r], and glides [j] and [w] are all sonorants

 sonorants:m,n,ŋ,l,r,j,w

三、Consonantal Sounds/子音的聲音
Obstruents, nasal stops, liquids, and glides are all consonants.

四、Syllabic Sounds/音節性音
Sounds that may function as the core of a syllable possess the feature syllabic.
Clearly vowels are syllabic, but they are not the only sound class that anchors
syllables.
所有的母音都帶有音節性,母音的特性為重音所在
Obstruents and glides are never syllabic sounds because an obstruent or glide
is always accompanied by a vowel, and that vowel functions as the syllabic core.
閉塞音和滑音總是需要伴隨著母音發音,所以閉塞音和滑音並沒有音節性。
Obstruents
1.non-nasal stops:p,b,t,d,k,g,th,ʤ,Ɂ
2.fricatives:f,v,θ, ð,s,z,ʃ,ӡ,h
3.affricates:th,ʤ
glides:j,w

Prosodic Features/韻律特徵
讀詩的音律代表情感。
Prefix-前綴詞-ex suprasegmental
Length, pitch, and stress (or “accent”) are prosodic or suprasegmental features.
長度,音高和重音(或“口音”)是韻律或超音段特徵。
They are features over and above the segmental values such as place or manner of articulation, thus the supra- in suprasegmental. 
它們的功能超越了發音位置和發音方式。
The term prosodic
comes from poetry, where it refers to the metrical structure of verse.
這個詞韻律來自詩歌,它指的是詩的韻律結構。
One of the essential characteristics of poetry is the placement of stress on particular syllables, which defines the versification of the poem.
一個詩的本質特徵是重音對特定的位置音節,它定義了詩的韻律。

Length
Speech sounds that are identical in their place or manner features may differ in length (duration). 
言語的聲音相同於發音的位置與方式,而長度有所改變的時候。
English is not a language in which vowel or consonant length can change a word. 
在英語中長度拉長也不改變意思。
However, in some languages when a vowel is prolonged to around twice its normal length, it can make a difference between words. 
然而,在某些語言中,當一個母音變長兩倍左右的長度時,它會變成不同字的差異。
In Japanese the word biru [biru] with a regular i means ‘building,’ but with the i doubled in length as in biiru, spelled phonetically as [biːru], the meaning is ‘beer.’ (The colon-like ː is the IPA symbol for segment length or doubling.) In Japanese, vowel length can make the difference between two words.
在日本,字如biru[別墅]用正常的長度的意思是“建築”,但拉長一倍的biiru,意思是'啤酒'在 
日本,母音長度會造成兩個詞之間的區別。

 pitch 
When we speak, we also change the pitch of our voices. The pitch depends on how fast the vocal cords vibrate: the faster they vibrate, the higher the pitch. If the larynx is small, as in children, the shorter vocal cords vibrate faster and the pitch is higher, all other things being equal. If the larynx is larger, as in adults, the longer vocal cords vibrate more slowly and the pitch is lower. That is why men (being generally larger), women, and children have (to a greater or lesser degree) lower-, medium-, and higher-pitched voices.
仰賴聲帶的震動快與慢;音高不會改變字的原意。

stress
English is a “stress-timed” language. In general, at least one syllable is stressed in an English word. French is not a stress-timed language. The syllables have approximately the same loudness, length, and pitch. It is a “syllabletimed” language. When native English speakers attempt to speak French, they often stress syllables, so that native French speakers hear French with “an English accent.” When French speakers speak English, they often fail to put stress where a native English speaker would, and that contributes to what English
speakers call “a French accent.”
英文重視重音,法文相反不重視重音(法文重視Syllable)

Tone and Intonation/聲調語言和語調語言
聲調語言比語調語言來的多。
聲調語言具代表性的國家為-亞洲。
語調語言國家為法文、英文(語句的上揚與下降)

There are two kinds of tones. If the pitch is level across the syllable, we have a register tone.
聲調語言分為兩種類型。如果音高為平音。即為標準聲調。
Register tone(標準聲調):如"媽"、"嘛"

If the pitch changes across the syllable, whether from high to low or vice versa, we have a contour tone. 
如果音調改變的水平,不管是高或低,即為上升下降的聲調語言。
Contour tone(上升下降的聲調語言):麻、馬、罵

Thai has three level and two contour tones. 
泰國有三個標準聲調;兩個上升下降的聲調語言。
Commonly, tone languages will have two or three register tones and possibly several contour tones.
通常,聲調語言會有兩到三個標準聲調;而有許多的上升下降的聲調。

練習題
1.Write the phonetic symbol for the first sound in each of the following
words according to the way you pronounce it.
Examples: ooze [u] psycho [s]
a. judge [ʤ ] f. thought [θ ]
b. Thomas [ t] g. contact [k ]
c. though [ð ] h. phone [ f]
d. easy [ i] i. civic [ s]
e. pneumonia [n ] j. usual [j ]

2. Write the phonetic symbol for the last sound in each of the following
words.
Example: boy [ɔɪ] (Diphthongs should be treated as one sound.)
a. fleece [s ] f. cow []
b. neigh [ e] g. rough [f ]
c. long [ ŋ] h. cheese [z ]
d. health [θ ] i. bleached [t ]
e. watch [ tʃ] j. rags [z ]

5. The following are all English words written in a broad phonetic transcription
(omitting details such as nasalization and aspiration). Write the
words using normal English orthography.
a. [hit]-heat
b. [strok]-stroke
c. [fez]-phase
d. [ton]-tone
e. [boni]-bony
f. [skrim]-scream
g. [frut]-fruit
h. [priʧər]-preacher
i. [krak]-crock
j. [baks]-box
k. [θæŋks]-thanks
l. [wɛnzde]-wednesday
m. [krɔld]-crawled
n. [kanʧiɛnʧəs]-conscientious
o. [parləmɛntæriən]-parliamentarian
p. [kwəbɛk]-Quebec
q. [pitsə]-pizza
r. [bərak obamə]-Barak Obama
s. [mɪt ramni]-Mit Rommney
t. [tu θaʊzənd ænd twɛlv]-two thousand and twelve

6. Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic
descriptions, then give an English word that contains this sound.
Example: voiced alveolar stop [d] dough
a. voiceless bilabial unaspirated stop [p ]spit
b. low front vowel [ æ]bat
c. lateral liquid [l ]lye
d. velar nasal [g ]king
e. voiced interdental fricative [ð ]thy
f. voiceless affricate [tʃ ]cheese
g. palatal glide [j ]you
h. mid lax front vowel [ɛ ]bet
i. high back tense vowel [u ]boot

j. voiceless aspirated alveolar stop [t ]tie

9.For each group of sounds listed, state the phonetic feature(s) they all share.
Example: [p] [b] [m] Features: bilabial, stop, consonant
a. [g] [p] [t] [d] [k] [b]-oral, stop consonants
b. [u] [ʊ] [o] [ɔ]-back, round, non-low vowels
c. [i] [ɪ] [e] [ɛ] [æ]- front, unrounded vowels
d. [t] [s] [ʃ] [p] [k] [ʧ] [f] [h]-voiceless oral obstruent consonants
e. [v] [z] [ӡ] [ʤ] [n] [g] [d] [b] [l] [r] [w] [j]-voiced consonants
f. [t] [d] [s] [ʃ] [n] [ʧ] [ʤ]-coronal consonant

11.What phonetic property or feature distinguishes the sets of sounds in
column A from those in column B?

A
                B
a.       
[i] [ɪ]
Front vowels
[u] [ʊ]
Back vowels
b.       
[p] [t] [k] [s] [f]
voiceless
[b] [d] [g] [z] [v]
Voiced
c.        
[p] [b] [m]
Bilabial
[t] [d] [n] [k] [g] [ŋ]
Other places of articulation
d.       
[i] [ɪ] [u] [ʊ]
high
[e] [ɛ] [o] [ɔ] [æ] [a]
Mid & low
e.       
[f] [v] [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ]
continuant
[ʧ] [ʤ]
Non-continuant
f.         
[i] [ɪ] [e] [ə] [ɛ] [æ]
non-back (front & central)
[u] [ʊ] [o] [ɔ]
back

12.Which of the following sound pairs have the same manner of articulation,
and what is that manner of articulation?
a. [h] [Ɂ] f. [f] [ʃ]
b. [r] [w] g. [k] [θ]
c. [m] [ŋ] h. [s] [g]
d. [ð] [v] i. [j] [w]
e. [r] [t] j. [j] [ʤ]

Language in Society/影響語言的社會因素

分為地方性的方言和社會性方言。
Dialects:方言

Idiolect: The way a person uses the language
個人方言:一個人使用的語言的方式

即便同樣語言
Like individuals, different groups of people who speak the same language speak in differently. Bostonians, New Yorkers, Texans, blacks in Chicago, whites in Denver and Hispanics in Albuquerque all exhibit variation in the way they speak English.
像個人,不同群體的人講同一種語言而說出來卻有不同的腔調。波士頓,紐約,德州,芝加哥黑人,丹佛和西班裔在阿爾伯克基的白人,都表現出了變異英語。

方言的定義
When there are systematic differences in the way groups speak a language, we say that each group speaks a dialect of that language.
當語言族群而有著系統上的差異,我們說每一個族群所說的特色語言為一種方言。

Dialects are mutually intelligible (互相聽得懂) forms of a language that differ in systematic ways. Every speaker, whether rich or poor, regardless of region or racial origin, speaks at
方言:有系統的不同且可互相聽得懂
語言:不同的語言,互相聽不懂

dialect continuum:循序漸進的過程,從一個語言到另一個語言。

Dialect leveling
is movement toward greater uniformity and less variation among dialects.
方言走向更大的一致性,減少其中的差異。

Regional Dialects:地方性的方言;像台語北部南部間的差異。
1.發音不同/Phonological
2.用字不同/Lexical
3.文法不同/Syntactic
In the United States, most dialectal differences are based on geographic region
和地理性的區域有關
例如:美國的方言
1. Scouses->Liverpool
2. Geordie->Newcastle
3. Birmingham
4. Cockeye->East end of Land

Regional phonological or phonetic distinctions are often referred to as different accents.
地區性語音或語音的區別是通常被稱為不同的腔調。
A person is said to have a Boston or Brooklyn or Midwestern accent.
一個人是說著有波士頓或布魯克林區的中西部口音。
Thus, accent refers to the characteristics of speech that convey information about the speaker’s dialect, which may reveal in what country or in what part of the country the speaker grew up, or to which sociolinguistic group the speaker belongs.
因此,關於說話者的方言口音是指講話傳達訊息的特點,這可能揭示在哪個國家或哪些國家的部分長大的說話者,或說話者所屬的社會性語言。
The term accent is also used to refer to the speech of non-native speakers, who have learned a language as a second language.
這個詞的腔調也用來指非母語使用者,學語言時用使用第一語言來學習第二語言。

RP:Recerved Pronucation(Standard)(要背英文)
Quess's English (皇族英文)-被廣泛使用的發音=標準發音

Phonological Differences/語音差異
美式英文與英式英文的差別:
1.重音不同
2.h,不發音 (英式英文H 不發音)
The pronunciation of British English (or many dialects of it) differs in systematic ways from pronunciations in many dialects of American English.
英式英語(或它的許多方言)的與美國英語的許多方言發音系統的方法讀音不同。
In a survey of hundreds of American and British speakers conducted via the Internet,48 percent of the Americans pronounced the mid consonants in luxuryas voiceless [lʌkʃəri], whereas 96 percent of the British pronounced them as voiced [lʌgʒəri].
在數以百計的美國和英國的說話者通過網路進行的一項調查顯示,48%的美國人的發音中子音在luxuryas為清輔音[lʌkʃəri],而英國發音的96%明顯為濁音[lʌgʒəri]
例如: Garage
美式唸:格ㄌㄨㄚˋ ㄐㄩ˙
英式唸:ㄍㄜˊㄌㄨㄚ ㄐㄩˊ
美式英文:第一個音節
英式英文:2~3個音節
The most consistent difference occurred in the placement of primary stress, with most
Americans putting stress on the first syllable and most British on the second or third in polysyllabic words like cigarette, applicable, formidable, and laboratory.
最一致性的差異發生在主重音位置,大多數美國人把重音在第一個音節而大多數英國人重音卻放在第二或第三個音節。詞如香煙,適用,強大和實驗室。
The United Kingdom also has many regional dialects.
英國也有許多地方方言。
The British vowels described in the phonetics chapter are used by speakers of the dialect called RP for received pronunciation because it is received (accepted) in the court of the monarch. In this dialect, h is pronounced at the beginning of both head and herb, whereas in most American English dialects h is not pronounced in herb.
在語音章節中介紹了英國母音所使用的方言說話者稱為RP為“被接受的發音”,因為它是“接受”(接受)在君主的法庭。在此方言,h的發音在開頭像是頭部和草本植物的開始,而在大多數美國英語方言H是不發音的。

In some British English dialects the h is regularly dropped from most words in which it is pronounced in American, such as house, pronounced [aʊs], and hero, pronounced [iro].
在一些英式英語方言中h是不發的發音,H的發音通常是發生在美式英文,如房子,發音[aʊs],和英雄。
As is true of the origin of certain American dialects, many of the regional dialects of British English, such as the West Country dialect, the East Anglia dialect, and the Yorkshire dialect, are not deviations from the standard dialect spoken in London, but are direct descendants of earlier varieties that existed alongside London English as far back as the eleventh century.
(Watch old Harry Potter movies to hear some of what weve been discussing vis-à-vis British English.)

Lexical differences 選字的不同
長褲(trousers):英美澳通用

Syntactic Differences/語法不同
例子
1.
American English
I suggest that he go to see a doctor.
British English
I suggest that he should go to see a doctor.
2.
American English
I've got to go.
British English
I got to go.

Dialect Atlases/方言地圖集
In similar maps, areas were differentiated based on the variation in pronunciation of the same word, such as [krik] and [krɪk] for creek. 
在同樣的地圖中,區域性的差異是根據相同的字產生發音的變化
The concentrations defined by different word usages and varying pronunciations, among other linguistic differences, form dialect areas.

集中的定義在於不同的單詞用法和不同的發音,方言區其中與其他語言的差異
拿中文來說魚的說法在澎湖跟在台灣的說法就不一樣了。

A geographical boundary of a dialect language.
方言語言的地理邊界。

isogloss
a line on a dialect map marking the boundary between linguistic features.
線標記了一個方言地圖語言特徵之間的邊界。
跨過了線,用法就不同。

Social Dialects/社會方言
Dialect differences that seem to come about because of social factors are called
social dialects, as opposed to regional dialects

方言似乎是來自社會因素的差異而被稱為社會方言,而不是地方方言。
教育、經濟、社會階級的不同。

The "Standard"
The dominant, or prestige, dialect is often called the standard dialect.
佔主導地位的,或聲望的方言通常被稱為標準的方言。
Standard American English (SAE) is a dialect of English that many Americans nearly speak; divergences from this “norm” are labeled “Philadelphia dialect,”“Chicago dialect,” “African American English,” and so on.
標準美國英語(SAE)是英語的一種方言,許多美國人接近使用這種方言說話;從這個“規範”的分歧被標為“費城方言,”
“芝加哥方言”,“非裔美國人的英語”,等等。

Standard 的定義:
SAE is an idealization. Nobody speaks this dialect; and if somebody did, we
would not know it, because SAE is not defined precisely (like most dialects,
none of which are easy to clarify).
SAE是一個理想化(跟受教育的時間有關)。沒有人會說這方言;如果有人說了,我們 

們也會不知道,因為SAE沒有準確的界定(像是大多數的方言,沒有一個是容易澄清的)。

A standard dialect (or prestige dialect) of a particular language may have social functions. 
特定語言的標準方言(或聲望方言)可能有社會功能。(社會的一個功能式)
Its use in a group may bind people together or provide a common written form for multidialectal speakers. 
它將一個族群的人綁在一起,或者從多方言的使用者提供一個共同的書面形式。
If it is the dialect of the wealthy, influential, and powerful members of society, this may have important implications for the entire society.
如果是富人的方言,社會影響力,以及強大的成員,這可能會影響整個社會。
All speakers who aspire to become successful may be required to speak that dialect even if it isn’t their own.

所有渴望成為成功的發言者,被要求要講的話,即使它是不是自己的。

Non-U speech habits often include hypercorrections, deviations from the norm thought to be “proper English,” such as pronouncing often with a [t],
hypercorrections-矯枉過正,太標準;每個音都發。

U=標準 Non-U:非標準

African American English-AAE
This dialect, African American English (AAE),is spoken by a large population of Americans of African descent.
這種方言,非洲裔英語(AAE),由一個人口眾多的非洲裔美國人使用口語化的方言。
The distinguishing features of this English dialect persist for social, educational,and economic reasons. 
這個英語方言的區別特徵為社會,教育,和經濟上的原因。
The historical discrimination against African Americans has created the social boundaries that permit this dialect to thrive. 
對非裔美國人的歷史歧視創造了允許這種方言茁壯成長的社會界限。
In addition,particularly in recent years, many blacks have embraced their dialect as a means of positive group identification. 
另外,特別是近年來,許多黑人已經接受了他們的方言作為主要的族群溝通語言。
AAE is generally used in casual and informal situations, and is much more common among working-class people.
AAE一般用在休閒和非正式場合,而且是更為常見藍領階層的人群中。
African Americans from middle- or upper-class backgrounds and with higher levels of education are now more likely to be speakers of SAE. 
中或上層階級背景和較高教育水平的的非裔美國人現在更有可能是使用SAE的語言。
U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama are cases in point.

美國總統奧巴馬和第一夫人米歇爾·奧巴馬是這方面的例子。

Phonological Differences between African American English and SAE.
非洲裔美國人的英語和SAE之間的語音差異
1.r-Deletion
非裔美人,R通常會省略掉,像是Guard/發音為God。
2.Neutralization of [ɪ] and [ɛ] before Nasal Consonants
[ɪ]和[ɛ]之前的鼻子音,像是pin和pen語音上發音差不多。
3.Diphthong Reduction
雙母音當單母音念。Toy變成ㄊㄨㄥˋ
4.Loss of Interdental Fricatives
A regular feature is the change of /θ/ to /f/ and /ð/ to /v/
Interdentals [θ] [ð]-不太會發
Fricatives(摩擦音):f,v,θ, ð,s,z,ʃ,ӡ,h

Syntactic Differences between AAE and SAE
AAE和SAE之間的語法差異
1.Multiple Negatives雙重否定
例如
I don't know nothing about him.
2.Deletion of the Verb Be刪除Be動詞
SAE:
He is nice/He’s nice. 
AAE
He nice.
3.Habitual Be習慣使用Be
AAE=>John be happy.
SAE=>John is always happy.
4.There Replacement
AAE=>It’s a fly messing with me. 
SAE=>There’s a fly messing with me.”

Chicano English-墨西哥裔英文(Maxico)
Hispanic(西班牙)From central or South American
Chicano English (ChE) is acquired as a first language by many children

Genderlects/男女用字不同(日語有分)
Since this early work, an increasing number of scholars have been conducting research on language, gender, and sexism, investigating the differences between male and female speech and their underlying causes.
由於這種早期的工作,越來越多的學者一直在進行研究語言,性別和性別歧視,調查男性和女性之間的差異的言論和他們的根本原因。
Many sociolinguists studying gender differences in speech now believe that women use hedges and other, similar devices not because they lack confidence but in order to express friendliness and solidarity, a sharing of attitudes and values,with their listeners.
許多社會語言學家在語音學習上的性別差異現在認為,女性使用規避及其他類似的詞彙,不是因為他們缺乏信心,而是為了 

來表達友好和團結,共享的態度和價值觀,給她們的聽眾。

Languages in Contact
-------------------------------
Lingua Francas/共通語言
早期-法文(每一個地區都有法文)
不同語言、不同族群拿來使用的共通言語(自然或政府干涉)
定義:
A language used by people with different languages for the purpose of communication or commence(business)
Many areas of the world are populated by people who speak diverse languages.
在世界許多地區都是講不同語言的人口。 
In such areas, where groups desire social or commercial communication, one language is often used by common agreement. Such a language is called a lingua franca.

在這些地區,卻渴望社會或商業通訊,一種語言會被利用來作為經常使用的共同協議。這樣的語言被稱為通用語言。

Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles/聯繫語言:洋涇濱語和克里奧爾
Pidgins:用一種強勢的語言來表達,但背後有原生母語的存在。 沒有文法,用字簡單。這種語言被稱為上層或lexifier語言
Pidgins→Creoles(Mix混合語,由Pidgins 演化但更精緻)
A lingua franca is typically a language with a broad base of native speakers,likely to be used and learned by persons with different native languages (usually in the same language family). 
通用語言通常是與母語者的廣泛基礎的語言,可能被使用,或被學習於使用不同母語的人。 
Often in history, however, speakers of mutually unintelligible languages have been brought into contact under specific socioeconomic and political conditions and have developed a language to communicate with one another that is not native to anyone. 
往往在歷史上,然而,互不相通的語言講者在接觸特定的社會經濟和政治條件下,並已經開發出一種語言,用來與不是當地的人進行交流。
Such a language is called a pidgin.
這樣的語言被稱為洋涇浜。

(都不是你和我的語言,會有2~3個語言併行-最粗糙)
In all these cases the contact is too specialized and the cultures too widely
separated for the native language of any one group to function effectively as
a lingua franca.
在接觸了太多專門且太廣泛的文化,在任一個個族群母音中有效地發揮作用。
Instead, the two or more groups use their native languages as a basis for developing a rudimentary

相反,兩個或多個族群使用他們的母語作為制定一個初步的基礎
(粗糙;沒有文法,用字簡單)

it is generally the case that one linguistic group is in a more powerful position, economically or otherwise,
such as the relationship of plantation owner to worker or slave owner to slave. 
所以一般情況下,一個語言族群是一處於更強大的地位,經濟或其他方面,如種植園主對工人或奴隸主對奴隸的關係。 
Most of the lexical items of the pidgin come from the language of the dominant group. 
大部分的洋涇浜的詞項的來自主流群體的語言。
This language is called the superstrate or lexifier language.
這種語言被稱為上層或lexifier語言。(強勢的語言-英文)
For example, English (the language of the plantation owners) is the superstrate language for Hawaiian Pidgin English, Swahili for the various forms of Pidgin Swahili spoken in East and Central Africa, and Bazaar Malay for pidgins spoken in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.
例如,英語(種植園主的語言)是上層語言夏威夷洋涇浜英語,斯瓦西裡語的口語在東部和中部非洲,和馬來市集為皮欽說在馬來西亞,新加坡,印尼和各種形式的洋涇浜斯瓦希里語。
The other language or languages also contribute to the lexicon and grammar, but in a less obvious way. These
are called substrate languages. 
其他的語言或語言也有助於組成詞彙和語法,但也變得不太明顯。這些被稱為影響的語言。
Japanese, Chinese, Tagalog, and Portuguese were the substrate languages

日本,中國,菲律賓語和葡萄牙語為影響的語言
像是NO THREE NO FOUR

Many linguists believe that pidgins form part of a linguistic “life cycle.” 
許多語言學家認為,pidgins形成語言的一部分,“生命週期”。 
In the very early stage of development the pidgin has no native speakers and is strictly a contact language. 
在發展的早期階段的pidgin沒有母語,是嚴格意義上的接觸語言。 
Its use is reserved for specialized functions, such as trading or work-oriented tasks, and its speakers speak their (respective) native languages in all other social contexts. 
它的用途是保留給特殊功能,如買賣或工作為導向的任務,其使用者說出自己的(各自的)母語在所有其他的社會環境。
In this early stage the pidgin has little in the way of clear grammatical rules and few (usually specialized) words.
在這個早期階段的pidgin的清晰的語法規則和幾個(通常是專門的)文字的方式關係不大。
Later, however, if the language continues to exist and be necessary, a much more regular and complex form of pidgin evolves—what is sometimes called a “stabilized pidgin”—and this allows it to be used more effectively in a variety of situations. 
後來,如果該語言繼續存在,並且必要時,混雜語產生更經常和複雜形式的演變 - 有時被稱為“穩定化的混雜語” - 這使得它可以更有效地在各種情況下使用。
Further development leads to the creation of a creole

進一步發展導致創建一個creole

most linguists believe has all the grammatical complexity of an ordinary language.
大多數語言學家認為普通語言有著所有語法的複雜性。 
Pidginization (the creation of a pidgin) thus involves a simplification of languages and a reduction in the number of domains of use.
因此涉及簡化的語言和使用的強勢者數量的減少。
Creolization,in contrast, involves the linguistic expansion in the lexicon and grammar of
existing pidgins,

克理奧爾化,相反,涉及的詞彙和語法的語言擴展建立於pidgins
Creole:有複雜的文法系統(是一種語言)。
Pidgins:只有單字沒有文法

Although pidgins are in some sense rudimentary, they are not devoid of rules. The phonology is rule-governed, as in any human language.

雖然pidgins在某些觀點來說是很原始簡單的,但又不是完全沒有規則。在任何的語言中,音韻上的規則還是有的。

Typically, pidgins have fewer grammatical words such as auxiliary verbs,
prepositions, and articles, and inflectional morphology, including tense and
case endings, as in:

在通常情況下,pidgins的語法詞較少,像是助動詞、介係詞和定冠詞甚至變化詞彙包含時態等
像是:
He bad man. “He is a bad man.”

Affixal morphology is largely absent.綴詞基本上不存在

Verbs and nouns usually have a single shape and are not altered to mark
tense, number, gender, or case.
動詞和名詞通常是單數型態,更沒有時態、單複數、性別或情況。

Creoles and Creolization 
A creole is defined as a language that has evolved in a contact situation to become the native language of a generation of speakers. 
creole被定義為已演變成為聯絡情況的新一代母語。

The traditional view is that creoles are the creation of children who, exposed to an impoverished and unstable pidgin, develop a far richer and more complex language that shares the fundamental characteristics of a “regular” human language and allows speakers to use the language in all domains of daily life.
在傳統的觀點中creoles是孩子創立的,展顯出一個貧困且不穩定的pidgin;建立一個豐富更複雜的語言,且分享規則的基本特性,並允許使用者用在所有強勢的每日生活中。
In contrast to pidgins, creoles may have inflectional morphology for tense, plurality,

相反的pidgins, creoles有著變化詞彙、複數型態等等的語法

derivationally
1.Lexical function
2.May cause word class change
3.Some meaning change
4.Never required by rules of grammar/從來沒有要求語法規則
5.Precede inflectional morphemes in a word
6.Some productive, many nonproductive 

DERIVATIONAL
1.PREFIX:pre,un,con-

2.SUFFIX:-ly,-ist,-ment

Moreover, the view that children are the creators of creoles is not universally accepted. 
此外,被認為兒童是克里奧爾人的創造者沒有被普遍接受。 
Various linguists believe that creoles are the result of imperfect second language learning of the lexifier or dominant language by adults and the “transfer” of grammatical properties from their native non-European
languages.
不同的語言學家認為,克里奧爾人是lexifier或佔主導地位的語言成年人和他們的母語非歐洲的“轉介”的語法性質的不完善的第二語言學習的結果語言。 

This hypothesis would account for some of the characteristics that creoles share with L2 “interlanguages
這一假說將占到一些特點,克里奧爾人與L2“中介語分享(語言習得)
中介語言=媒介=interlanguages
is a medium(媒介) language,created by learners on the way to learn the second language.

學習語言的過程,中介語言使用的越久,母語的干擾越大。

形成的原因
The study of pidgins and creoles has contributed a great deal to our understanding of the nature of human language and the processes involved in language creation and language change, and of the sociohistorical conditions
under which these instances of language contact occurred.
pidgins and creoles的研究作出了很大貢獻,讓我們理解人類母語和創造一個語言的過程,和其社會的歷史條件,在這些狀況下一個溝通的語言產生了。

Bilingualism/雙語
Codeswitching-語言轉變。
The term bilingualism refers to the ability to speak two (or more) languages,
either by an individual speaker, individual bilingualism, or within a society,

societal bilingualism.
術語雙語指的是說兩個(或更多)的語言的能力, 
無論是個別的使用者,個人雙語,或在一個社會中, 

社會雙語

Bilingualism (or multilingualism) also refers to the situation in nations in
which two (or more) languages are spoken and recognized as official or national
languages. Societal bilingualism exists in many countries, including
Canada, where English and French are both official languages, and Switzerland,
where French, German, Italian, and Romansch all have official status.
雙語(或多種語言)也指國家在情況下用著兩個(或更多)的語言且承認為正式或國家的語言。

社會雙語存在於許多國家,包括加拿大,英語和法語皆為官方語言,而瑞士(國家)的法語,德語,意大利語,羅曼什語和都具有官方地位。

Codeswitching/兩種語言流利
定義:Codeswitching is a speech style unique to bilinguals, in which fluent speakers
switch languages between or within sentences.
語碼轉換現象是一個風格獨特的雙語,講著流利語言並在之間或句子內切換語言。

Codeswitching is a universal language-contact phenomenon that reflects
the grammars of both languages working simultaneously. Bilingual Spanish-
English speakers may switch between English and Spanish(兩種一起出現)
語碼轉換現象是反映一種普遍的語言接觸現象,這兩種語言的語法同時工作。雙語西班牙語 
講英語的人可能英語和西班牙語之間切換

Codeswitching occurs wherever groups of bilinguals speak the same two languages. 
Furthermore, codeswitching occurs in specific social situations, enriching
the repertoire of the speakers.(有時有跡可循有時沒有)
語碼轉換現象的地方發生在體講相同的兩個雙語。 

語碼轉換發生在特定的使用者社會環境,豐富的功能。

A common misconception is that codeswitching is indicative of a language disability
of some kind, for example, that bilinguals use codeswitching as a coping
strategy for incomplete mastery of both languages, or that they are speaking “broken”
English. These characterizations are completely inaccurate. Recent studies of
the social and linguistic properties of codeswitching indicate that it is a marker of
bilingual identity, and has its own internal grammatical structure.(強調兩種語言交換運作)
一個常見的誤解是,語碼轉換為指示性語言障礙類型的,例如,雙語者使用語碼轉換為應對策略不完全掌握兩種語言,或者說他們是講“破”英語。這些特性是完全不準確的。最近的研究語碼轉換的社會和語言屬性表明它是一個標記的雙語標識,並有自己的內部語法結構。

Codeswitching is to be distinguished from (bilingual) borrowing(外來語), which occurs when a word or short expression from one language occurs embedded among the words of a second language and adapts to the regular phonology, morphology, and syntax of the second language. 
Codeswitching的區別是(雙語上)的借用,發生在當一種語言或簡短的表達從一種語言的產生;在其中所置入一個詞為正規的第二種的音韻學、形態學和句法學。

In codeswitching, in contrast, the two languages that are interwoven preserve their own phonological and other grammatical properties.
在Codeswitching中,相反的是兩個語言互相保留它們自己的音韻學和其他的語法屬性。

Borrowing can be easily distinguished from codeswitching by the pronunciation of an element. Sentence (1) involves borrowing, and (2) codeswitching.
借用可以用發音的元素被簡單的區分:
(1)借用:用自己的語言再修改。
(2)Codeswitching:保留原本的狀態
我愛餅乾和我的咖啡。
(1) I love biscottis [bɪskaɾiz] with my coffee.-借用:用自己的語言再修改。

(2) I love biscotti [biskɔtːi] with my coffee.-Codeswitching:保留原本的狀態

In sentence (1) biscotti takes on an (American) English pronunciation and plural -s morphology, while in (2) it preserves the Italian pronunciation and plural morpheme -i (plural for biscotto, ‘cookie’).
在句(1)中餅乾為(美國)英語發音和複數 - S的形態,
而在(2)它保留了義大利的發音和複數語素-I(複數為biscotto,'餅乾')。


像日本將Schedual發音為思ㄍㄟ糾路

Language and Education----------------------------------------------------
Second-Language Teaching Methods
Grammar Translation Method=>decontextualized
語法翻譯法=>斷章取義

快速學習(drill practice)重視句型練習。
Audio-lingual Method=EX.Grammar Translation Method

英語教學(拉丁文學習)
1.基本(Bottom-up methods)inductive--accuracy(精確度)
2.Top-down(deductive演繹)--Fluency流暢
Ex.The Nature Approach--The Direct Method--自然法 - 直接法
3.Interactive/交互式

Second-language teaching methods fall into two broad categories: the synthetic approach and the analytic approach.
第二語言的教學方法分為兩種類型:
綜合方法和分析方法。 
As the name implies, the synthetic approach stresses the teaching of the grammatical, lexical, phonological, and
functional units of the language step by step. 
如同名字說說明的。
綜合方法強調語法、字彙、語音上的教學;為透過一步步的語言單元。
This is a bottom-up method.
這是一種由下而上的學習方法
The task of the learner is to put together—or synthesize—the discrete elements that make up the language. 
學習者的任務是將它們放在一起或合併-分別的元件而組成的語言。
The more traditional language teaching methods, which stress grammar instruction, fall into this category.
比較傳統的語言教學方法強調著語法教學,都屬於此類。

An extreme example of the synthetic approach is the grammar translation method favored up until the mid-1960s, in which students learned lists of vocabulary,verb paradigms, and grammatical rules.
最極端的例子是1960年代中期被青睞的綜合方法-文法翻譯方式,學生學習單字列表,動詞範例和文法規則。(精確度>流利度)
Learners translated passages from the target language into their native language. 
學習翻譯片段從目標語言轉換成他們的母語。
The teacher typically conducted class in the students’ native language, focusing on the grammatical parsing of texts, and there was little or no contextualization of the language being taught. 
老師通常典型的進行他們班級的學生母語,將焦點放在解析文法,而僅有微量的或沒有語言的情境教導。
Reading passages were carefully constructed to contain only vocabulary and structures to which learners had already been exposed, and errors in translation were corrected on the spot. 

學習者仔細的閱讀文章結構,只包含著詞彙和結構,和即時的翻譯糾正。

Learners were tested on their mastery of rules, verb paradigms, and vocabulary. 
學習者被測試他們的對動詞範式和詞彙規則的掌握度。
The students did not use the target language very much except in reading translated passages aloud.
學生沒有很長的時間使用目標語言,除了在大聲地朗讀翻譯文章
Analytic approaches are more top-down. 
分析方法是由上至下。
The goal is not to explicitly teach the component parts or rules of the target language. 
目標不是明確的教導目標語言的組件規則。(不教文法,從使用中自己找出結構)
Rather, the instructor selects topics, texts, or tasks that are relevant to the needs and interests of
the learner, whose job then is to discover the constituent parts of the language.
相反,教師選擇了主題,文本,或者是相關的需求和利於學習者的,讓他們了解了語言的組成部分。
This approach assumes that adults can extract the rules of the language
from unstructured input, more or less like a child does when acquiring his first language.

這種方法假定成人可以提取語言的規則從非結構化的輸入,或多或少像一個孩子學習他的第一個時語言。

Currently, one of the most widely practiced analytic approaches is contentbased instruction, in which the focus is on making the language meaningful and on getting the student to communicate in the target language. 
目前,最廣泛採用的分析方法之一是contentbased教導,其中的重點是使語言有意義,和讓學生用目標語言進行溝通。
Learners are encouraged to discuss issues and express opinions on various topics of interest to them in the target language. 
學習者被鼓勵討論問題,及表達對各種感興趣的話題意見用目標語言。
Topics for discussion might include “Online Dating” or “Taking Responsibility for Our Environment.”
討論的議題可能包括“線上約會“或”我們對環境的責任。
Grammar rules are taught on an as-needed basis, and fluency takes precedence over grammatical accuracy.
語法規則教導需要的基礎,而且流暢度重要優先於語法準確度。
 Classroom texts (both written and aural) are generally taken from sources that were not created specifically for language learners, on the assumption that these will be more interesting and relevant to the student. 
教室文本(包括書面和聽力),一般採取的來源沒有專門創建,而是假設這些將會讓學生更有興趣和相關。
Assessment is based on the learner’s comprehension of the target language.
評估一種基於學習者對目標語言的理解。
Not all second-language teaching methods fall clearly into one or the other category. 
不是所有的第二語言的教學方法都可以清楚的歸屬於一種或另一種類別。
The synthetic and analytic approaches should be viewed as the opposite
ends of a continuum along which various second-language methods may fall.

綜合和分析的方法應該被看作是相反的兩端,沿續的延著各種第二語言的方法。

各方法取其一

Teaching Reading
The way we learn to read and write, however,is quite different from the way we acquire the spoken/signed language.

我們學習閱讀和書寫,相當不同於口語或手語語言。

The most important respect in which spoken/signed language development differs from learning to read is that reading requires specific instruction and conscious effort, whereas under normal circumstances language acquisition does not. 
其中最重要的方面口語/手語言發展不同於學習閱讀,閱讀是需要特定的說明和有意識的努力,而在正常情況下不能由語言習得。
Which kind of instruction works best for teaching reading has been a topic of considerable debate for many decades. 
哪一種教學方式最適合閱讀教學,這樣的主題爭論了幾十年。
Three main approaches have been tried.
三種主要的方法被嘗試:

The first—the whole-word approach全字教學法
優點:經由背誦(Rote)快速學習單字
缺點:字跟音的連結性沒有,卻變成把文字當作圖像。
—teaches children to recognize a vocabulary of some fifty to one hundred words by rote learning, often by seeing the words used repeatedly in a story: for example, Run, Spot, Run from the Dick and Jane series well-known

第一種方法,教導學生認識字彙,50~100個字死記硬背的學習,經常被用到在故事中。像是Run, Spot, Run from the Dick and Jane一系列的字。
50~100自背起來(logographic V.S alphabetic/音標V.S字母)

Rather, it treats the written language as though it were a logographic system
相反的,他把書面語言對照了音標系統
第一語言的教法-Natic speak;沒有字音的連結性-圖像和字的結合;把文字當作圖像
in which the symbols correspond to the individual sounds (roughly phonemes) of the language. 
在該符號在語言中對應的單個聲音(大致音素) 
This is ironic because alphabetic writing systems are the easiest to learn and are maximally efficient for transcribing any human language.

這是具有諷刺意味的,因為拼音文字系統是最容易學習,並最大限度地有效的轉錄任何人類的語言。
A second approach—phonics—emphasizes特色 the correspondence between letters and the sounds associated with them. 
Phonics instruction begins by teaching children the letters of the alphabet and then encourages them to sound
out words based on their knowledge of the sound-letter correspondences.
So, if you have learned to read the word gave (understanding that the e is silent), then it is easy to read save and pave.
However, English and many other languages do not show a perfect correspondence between sounds and letters.
英文沒有絕對完美的對應。

優點:自然發音教學法-字和音發音有對應
缺點:每個字在不同環境有不同的發音。

第三種The whole-language approach/全語言教學法

(also called “literature-based” or “guided reading”), which was most popular in the 1990s.
全語言的方法(也稱為“文學基礎”或“導讀”),流行1990年代。
 The key principle is that phonics should not be taught directly.
關鍵的原則是拼音不應該直接授課。
特色:不可以直接教發音;透過不斷的閱讀去熟悉字跟音。
Rather, the child is supposed to make the connections between sounds and letters herself based on exposure to text.
相反,孩子應該發出聲音和字母根據自己找出於文字之間的連接。
多看文章培養語感。

The philosophy behind the whole-language approach is that learning to read, like learning to speak, is a natural act that children can basically do on their own—an assumption that, as we noted earlier, is questionable at best.
哲學背後的全語言方法是學習閱讀,像是學習說話是一種自然的行為,孩子基本上可以自己做-一個假設,正如我們前面提到的,質疑是最好的。

With the whole-language approach, the main job of the teacher is to make the reading experience an enjoyable one.
隨著全語言教學法,教師的主要任務是使閱讀體驗變成一個愉快的經驗。
To this end, children are presented with engaging books and are encouraged to write stories of their own as a way of instilling a love of reading and words.
為此,兒童都藉由書籍,並鼓勵他們寫自己的故事,作為一種方式,灌輸該他們熱愛閱讀和單詞。 (閱讀聽力是自然發生的)
******
Despite the intuitive appeal of the whole-language approach—after all, who would deny the educational value of good literature and creative expression in learning?
儘管直覺的產生全語言的方法,誰又能否認好的文學作品和創意表達的教育價值的學習?
—research has clearly shown that under most circumstances understanding the relationship between letters and sounds is critically important in reading.
研究已經清楚地表明,在大多數情況下的理解
字母和聲音之間的關係是極為重要的閱讀。
One of the assumptions of the whole-language approach is that skilled
adult readers do not sound out words when reading, so proponents question
the value of focusing on sounding out in reading instruction.
一個全語言方法的假說方法是,熟練的成年讀者當他們閱讀時不發音,因此支持者問題
專注於發音中閱讀教學的價值。
Classroom studies have also compared phonics with whole-word or whole-language approaches and have shown that phonics instruction produces better results for beginning readers.
課堂上的研究也比較拼音與全字或全語言方法和證明,拼音指產生的開頭閱讀更好的結果。
Native Speak\原生朗讀
At this point, the consensus among psychologists and linguists who do research on reading
在這一點上,心理學家和語言學家做閱讀研究的共識
—and a view shared by many teachers—
和很多老師也有同感
is that reading instruction must be grounded in a firm understanding of the connections between
letters and sounds, and that whole-language activities that make reading fun and meaningful for children should be used to supplement phonics instruction.
閱讀教學必須在字母和發音兩者之間的連接有相當的了解,使全語言的活動,讓兒童感受到閱讀的樂趣和意義,全部用於補充拼音教學。
初學者而言自然發音法為主,全語言為輔;全字不使用

Bilingual Education/雙語教育
1.Transitional Bilingual Education/過渡性雙語教育 (TBE)
students receive instruction in both English and their native language, and the native
language support is gradually phased out over two or three years. 
學生在英語和自己的母語中接受指導,和原生語言的支持下逐漸兩年或三年使用下,漸漸淘汰使用原生語言輔助。
以母語為主 Target Language過渡時期

2.In Bilingual Maintenance/雙語維持 (BM) 
 students remain in bilingual classes for their entire educational experience.
學生在雙語的環境中學習的教育經驗

3.Dual Language Immersion/雙語沉浸式
(純雙語又叫Two-Way teaching.)
學生來自不同母語的國家,學生沉浸在雙語的環境中

4.Sheltered English Immersion (SEI).英文能力差-移民小孩(短期)
於特殊班級(移民專用小學)學習英文,再轉換至主流班級學習英文

Language in use
--------------------------------
One of the themes of this book is that you have a lot of linguistic knowledge that you may not be aware of, but that can be made explicit through the rules of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. 
一本書的主題是,你有很多的語言知識,你可能不知道的,但可以透過語音,語態,句法和語義規則進行明確的使用。
You also have a deep social knowledge of your language. 
你也有屬於你的語言深刻的社會知識。
You know the appropriate way to talk to your parents, your friends, your clergy, and your teachers.
你知道適當的方式跟你的父母,你的朋友,你的神職人員,和你的老師溝通。
 You know about “politically correct” (PC) language: to say “mail carrier,” “firefighter,” and “police officer,”and not to say “nigger,” “wop,” and “bitch.” In short, you know how to use your language appropriately, even if you sometimes choose not to. 
你知道的“政治正確”(電腦)語言:““郵遞員”,“消防員”和“警察”,不說“黑鬼”,“痛擊”,並總之,你知道如何正確地運用你的語言,即使你有時會不這麼選擇。
This section discusses some of the many ways in which the use of language varies in society.
本節討論了一些方法很多,其中語言的使用在社會變化。

Styles=Registers (和使用語言的環境和對象、情況的不同;產生用字潛詞的不同)
Contraction縮音=> I would. I'd(informal & formal)
Most speakers of a language speak one way with friends, another on a job interview or presenting a report in class, another talking to small children, another with their parents, and so on. 
一種語言的大多數發言者在面試或提交一份報告;在課堂上,和小孩子說話,與父母,等等不同的說話方式。
These “situation dialects” are called styles, or registers.
這些“情況方言”被稱為 styles, or registers
Nearly everybody has at least an informal and a formal style.
幾乎每個人都至少有一個非正式和正式的風格。
 In an informal style, the rules of contraction are used more often, the syntactic rules of
negation and agreement may be altered, and many words are used that do not
occur in the formal style.
在一個非正式的風格,縮音的規則中使用的語法規則的更多的時候, 
否定和協議可能會被改變,許多字的使用不發生在正式文體。
It is common for speakers to have competence in several styles(知道分寸), ranging
between the two extremes of formal and informal. 
這是常見的說話者有能力在幾種風格(知道分寸),範圍
兩個極端的正式和非正式之間。

The use of styles is oftena means of identification with a particular group
根據Situation dialect和對象particular group
使用樣式往往識別與特定群體的對象
Many cultures have rules of social behavior that govern style. Some Indo-
European languages distinguish between you (familiar) and you (polite).
German du and French tu are to be used only with “intimates”;
許多文化中都有支配式的社會行為規則。一些印度 -歐洲語言你(熟悉),你區分(禮貌)。 

杜德國和法國TU要只用於“熟人”;

英文沒有尊敬,你和您沒有區分

Jargon and Argot(行語和暗語)
定義:Practically every conceivable science, profession, trade, and occupation uses
specific slang terms called jargon, or argot. Linguistic jargon, some of which
is used in this book, consists of terms such as phoneme(音的最小單位), morpheme(詞的最小單位), case, lexicon, phrase structure rule, X-bar schema, and so on. Part of the reason for specialized terminology is for clarity of communication, but part is also for speakers to
identify themselves with persons with whom they share interests.
行話或隱語具體來說專業,行業,職業的專業術語,目的是為了清楚的溝通,讓同行的人可以清楚的了解。如語言學的音素(音的最小單位),詞素(詞的最小單位)詞彙,短語結構規則,X-桿模式,等等。

Taboo or Not Taboo?(
語言本身不髒,是聽的人的關係,和整體上的共識。
How can language be filthy? In fact, how can it be clean? The filth or beauty of language must be in the ear of the listener, or in the collective ear of society.
語言如何污穢?事實上,它怎麼能是乾淨的?語言的髒或美都在聽者的耳朵,或在社會的整體耳朵。
三字經-整體上有共識
        Words relating to sex, sex organs, and natural bodily functions make up a large part of the set of taboo words of many cultures. Often, two or more words or expressions can have the same linguistic meaning, with one acceptable and the other taboo. In English, words borrowed from Latin sound “scientific” and therefore appear to be technical and “clean,” whereas native Anglo-Saxon counterparts are taboo. Such pairs of words are illustrated as follows:
有關性別,性器官和自然的身體機能的字組成多種文化,占了禁忌語的很大一部分。通常,兩個或更多的字或詞可以具有相同的語言意義,與一種可接受的和其他的禁忌。在英語中,來自拉丁美洲的聲音“科學”借來的,所以的話似乎是技術和“乾淨。這樣的對字的說明如下:
       
Latinate Acceptable Words
Anglo-Saxon Taboo Words -Taboo   
Vagina
Cunt
Penis
Cock
Penis
Prick
Mammaries
Tits
Feces,defecate
shit

Euphemisms (委婉語)
定義:The existence of taboo words and ideas motivates the creation of euphemisms(委婉語).
禁忌的字和思想的存在而創造了委婉語。
委婉語是取代禁忌詞或避免可怕不愉快的詞或短語。
 A euphemism is a word or phrase that replaces a taboo word or serves to avoid frightening or unpleasant subjects.
死亡die=pass away往生
        These euphemisms, as well as the difference between the accepted Latinate” genteel” terms and the “dirty” Anglo-Saxon terms, show that a word or phrase has not only a linguistic denotative meaning but also a connotative meaning that reflects attitudes, emotions, value judgments, and so on. In learning a language, children learn which words are taboo, and these taboo words differ from one child to another, depending on the value system accepted in the family or group in which the child grows up.
這些委婉語,之前的區別,以及被公認的拉丁“上流社會”的條款和“髒”,顯示一個單詞或詞組不僅具有語言學外延意義更是一種內涵,反映了態度,情感,價值判斷,等等。在學習語言,孩子們學習的詞是禁忌,而這些禁忌的話,從一個孩子而異,這取決於接受在家庭或團體在孩子長大的價值體系。
 denotative meaning=本身的意思
 connotative meaning=延申的意思
Cultures languages=內含涵義高
1.high context;
2.low context

Language and Sexism
Marked and Unmarked Forms/標記和未標記形式
Unmarked:常用的主流的不用去特別標注的,通常用來講男性。
       Similar to this is an asymmetry between male and female terms in many languages in which there are male/female pairs of words. The male form is generally unmarked and the female term is created by adding a bound morpheme. We have many such examples in English:
與此相似的是在許多語言中,有男/女詞對男性和女性的條款之間是不對稱的。陽性/陰性的配對字中。男性型式是一般性未標記的;而女性型式是被添加一個綁定的詞素所創造。我們有很多這樣的例子在英語:
Male( Unmarked)
Female(Marked)
Heir男繼承者
Heiress女繼承者
major樂隊男隊長
majorette樂隊女隊長
Hero英雄
Heroine女英雄
Robert
Roberta
equestrian
equestrienne
aviator
aviatrix

 習題
Below are some words used in British English for which different words
are usually used in American English. See whether you can match the
British and American equivalents.
下面是一些詞用在英式英語而與美式英文使用上的不同。看看你是否可以匹配。


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